Tissue expansion holds impeccable place in various treatments such as hair loss, skin expansion, bone expansion, tissue expansion and breast reconstruction. It allows the body to grow additional skin, bone and tissues to perform surgical treatments. It further allows the defected tissue to replace with same color and texture. It is done by using certain expanders and other skin or tissue expanders which fits into tissue and the internal part is then filled with valve.
There are various kinds of tissue expansion techniques used by the surgeons such as:
• Breast tissue expansion- After mastectomy, this technique is used for breast reconstruction and expander is placed which is filled with salted solution by injecting it into the expander. The breast implant is placed under the chest and is filled with fluid which reshapes and positions itself in certain time after the removal of expander. Although this process takes time but is considered of more purpose rather than the flap techniques for breast reconstruction.
• Skin Expansion: Skin expansion is a surgical process which is used to grow extra skin of same color, texture and thickness of the surrounding tissues. This reduces the scars and marks in the skin. Breast surgery can be done using skin expansion where a mastectomy is done by removing the mammary gland. After removal, a permanent breast implant in Thailand is filled with saline or silicone gel which is then inserted into the expanded skin. Besides breast reconstruction, it is also used in some treatments such as the scalp reconstruction, radial forearms free flap, foreskin restoration, and others like treatment of wounds and burns.
• Bone Expansion: Bone expansion is also a tissue expansion technique where tissue is a bone and it is expanded using various external devices such as mechanical machines and thus the bone grows and thus expands. Surgeries such as fitbone surgery are among the most preferred one which treat various deformity such as dwarfism, asymmetric limbs, lengthening of limbs in various pathological disorders. Also, some expanders are used for improving bone structure in case of tumors and traumas are also used for limb lengthening.
• Muscle Expansion: Muscle is a tissue itself, thus it can be expanded and the process is called as induced stretch exercise or hypertrophy. This treatment helps in reducing the muscular cramps as well as tearing of tendons and ligaments by virtue of various exercises. Using various exercises such as ballistic, dynamic, static stretching, neuromuscular facilitation helps muscle to expand to its maximum and thus gain a momentum which protects it from over tearing and over stretching.